What is green coffee beans, how is it classified and preserved? The price of green coffee beans
I. What is green coffee beans?
Green coffee beans/ raw coffee is the term for unroasted coffee beans. Green coffee is a product of the preliminary processing of fresh coffee at harvest.
Fresh berries after being peeled will have to undergo preliminary processing (dry, wet, honey), resulting in green coffee. Normally, a coffee bean will produce 2 cores. Especially, the Culi coffee has only one bean.
II. Classification of green coffee
Green coffee is classified in many different ways depending on the type, processing, grain size (type of sieve) …
The coffee classification process is usually based on some of the following criteria:
Number of defects
Region, region (separate criteria in each regional country)
Processing method (wet, dry or honey processing)
Taste quality (judged by cupping techniques)
Grain weight (this criterion is also related to the height of cultivation).
1. Differentiated by type
Based on categories, green coffee is divided into robusta and arabica coffee. In each category (robusta, arabica) coffee will be divided into different smaller categories based on processing method, and sieve size.
Recommend reading: the difference between robusta coffee and arabica coffee
Coffee varieties are grown in popularity in Vietnam.
Arabica coffee beans
Arabica has 5 popular categories: Caturra, Bourbon, Mocha, Typica and Catimor.
This coffee variety is grown in places with an altitude of 1000m or more, in areas where the temperature difference of day and night is large. Arabica is preferred for its sweet aroma and special aftertaste.
Robusta green coffee
Robusta is a sunny, tropical climate that is often grown in low mountainous areas. This coffee variety is characterized by very good disease resistance. Robusta coffee beans have a characteristic bitter taste and high caffeine content.
In Vietnam, Robusta green coffee is a key product, bringing Vietnam 2nd in the world for coffee exports and No. 1 for robusta coffee exports.
In addition to Arabica and Robusta, Vietnam is also famous for Cherry coffee (Coffee Liberia & Excelsa) and culi / peaberry coffee. Culi coffee are mutated coffee fruits from regular coffee categories such as Arabica or Robusta but instead of two coffee beans in the fruit, the Culi coffee has only one bean. Therefore, the caffeine content of Culi coffee is higher than normal.
2. Classification of green coffee by processing methods
There are three commonly used methods of coffee processing: dry processing, wet processing, honey processing.
Recommend reading: The method of coffee processing is commonly used today
Accordingly, green coffee is divided into three main types:
Washed Processed Coffee
Natural / Dry Processed Coffee
Honey / Pulped Natural Coffee
3. Sorting coffee by grain size
Specifications for classifying coffee beans according to grain size
Sorting by grain size is becoming a common scale for the coffee industry, the actual application may vary in some areas, but basically this method almost gains a common voice in many countries. . In particular, the coffee beans after drying will be rayed through perforated metal sheets with diameters ranging from 8 to 20/64 inches.
Sieve sizes rarely use the millimeter number, but use the ratio 1/64 inch. In other words, 18 sieves mean 18/64 inches, which translates to 7.1 mm units of measurement, likewise sieve 16 is 6.3mm. The size of sieve is used the same in every country that produces coffee, but the names are completely different. For example, a very large coffee bean (19-20 1/64 inches) is called AA in Africa and Supremo in Colombia.
When you put a handful of coffee on the 18/64 inch sieve, the remaining seeds on the sieve will be classified as 18 sieves, any beans that fall down and the remaining on the 16/64 sieve will be classified as 16 sieves. However, this classification is difficult to be 100% accurate (For example, due to its high density, some particles are small but not falling). Therefore, in its classification system, SCA allows a 5% variance with sieve measurements (ie, for every 100 coffee beans on sieve 18 it is allowed to have 5 smaller or larger seeds).
The coffee bean grading standards are being used in the world and in Vietnam
SCAA Coffee Beans Classification
Vietnam Standard System:
National standard TCVN 4193: 2012
Vietnam Standard TCVN 4807 – Methods of determining grain size by hand sieve issued by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment
III. Processing process of green coffee
1. Harvest fresh berries
When the berries turn red, they are ripe and can be harvested. In Vietnam, the harvesting of coffee is usually done manually by spreading a large canvas under a coffee tree and then picking each ripe fruit by hand.
2. Preliminary processing fresh berries
After being harvested, coffee cherries will be separated from the skin immediately if using wet processing method and honey. Or the berries will be sun-dried to reduce the amount of water and then take away the skin if using dry processing.
Depending on the processing method, the coffee beans can be fermented or dried.
3. Reduce moisture
The pre-packed coffee bean must be reduced to a moisture content of 12.5%. There are many methods of drying coffee beans such as sun drying or electric drying.
Sun drying can take 8 to 10 days and sometimes the coffee beans dry out unevenly. Machine drying will ensure that the coffee beans dry faster, but it is important to monitor the steps carefully to make sure they remain pure. amount of coffee beans
4. Screening, color shooting, polishing
After the green coffee beans are dried, they will be screened to remove impurities and classify grain sizes.
Then, depending on the needs of the buyer, the coffee beans will be put into more stringent stages such as color shooting, polishing.
IV. Preserving green coffee beans
Recommended reading: THE BEST WAY TO STORE GREEN COFFEE BEANS
The moisture content of the finished coffee beans is very low, so it can be preserved for a long time without being moldy or losing the natural flavor.
There are 2 common ways to preserve green coffee: store in bags or dump.
1. Preserving in bags:
Preserving in bags: (sacks, jute bags …). This is a popular method that is applied a lot. The following points should be considered when storing:
– Moisture of coffee beans put into storage must be less than 13%
– Impurities in coffee as little as possible, for grade I and II coffee percentage impurities <0.5%
– Choose wet storage with good insulation and moisture
– Must disinfect and clean the warehouse before packing
– Do not put directly on the floor and close to the wall: should be 0.3 m, 0.5 m from the wall.
– To avoid the phenomenon of compacting the bags due to the compression of the load of the top bags, every 3 weeks, the order of the bags should be reversed.
2. Pour into bulk (store in bulk)
Pour into bulk: essentially bulk storage in silos. To save packaging and preserve longer time, people often store coffee beans in silos, concrete, or closed wood. The advantage of this method is that in addition to saving the packaging and increasing the storage time; it also saves the volume of the warehouse, avoiding the phenomenon of compaction that reduces the bulk of the coffee bean.
V. Price of green coffee
Price of green coffee depends mainly on type, size and processing method.
The larger the particle size, the higher the price
Wet processed coffee beans are more expensive than dry processed beans
Polished coffee beans are more expensive than unpolished coffee beans
Arabica coffee is more expensive than Robusta
Refer to the price of coffee in Vietnam market here:
VI. Application of green coffee
Roasted coffee beans are popularly used for coffee beans 16 and 18. Smaller coffee beans such as screens 14 and 15 are not used as main drinks but are often used as mixing materials to reduce prices. Screened coffee 13, often used to make instant coffee.
Is the main raw material for making roasted and ground coffee.
Provide green coffee extract, which is the main ingredient for weight loss.
Decaffeinated to create decaf coffee (decaffeinated coffee).
VII. Status of production and export of green coffee of Vietnam
Vietnam is the 2nd largest coffee producer in the world, the world’s No. 1 in robusta at each time.
The annual average output> 1.2 million tons; peak of 1.5 to 1.7 million tons.
95% of coffee grown in Vietnam is robusta.
Coffee is grown in 5 provinces in the Central Highlands of Vietnam.
5% – 8% is the domestic consumption rate of Vietnam.
95% of Vietnam’s green coffee beans is exported.
Vietnam exports green coffee beans to most countries in the world.
The United States and Germany are the two countries that buy Vietnamese coffee beans the most.
In Vietnam, green coffee is independently verified for quality and weight by CAFECONTROL.
Quality standards of green coffee: TCVN 4193: 2005, approved by VICOFA and ICO.
VIII. Asiacom.vn – a reputable unit in exporting green coffee in Vietnam
Asia Commodities is one of the pioneers in achieving success in exporting green coffee in the country to neighboring countries and the world.
For more than 6 years operating in the field of coffee export, we are proud to bring to our international friends the superior quality green coffee, the quintessence of Vietnamese soil agriculture.
With the advantage of owning a coffee processing factory with a capacity of 50,000 tons / year, along with the selection of superior coffee sources from the best regions in Vietnam; Asia Commodities’ coffee has gained solid trust with its partners, meeting the requirements of the most demanding markets such as the US and European countries.
Currently, we offer a variety of green coffee beans with two main categories are Arabica and Robusta.
Some of our best-selling products are:
|1. GRADE 2 SCR 13-5%|
|2. GRADE 1 SCR 16-2%|
|3. GRADE 1 SCR 16 CLEAN|
|4. GRADE 1 SCR 16-WET POLISHED|
|5. GRADE 1 SCR 18-2%|
|6. GRADE 1 SCR 18 CLEAN|
|7. GRADE 1 SCR 18-WET POLISHED|
|1. SCR 14-UNWASHED|
|2. SCR 16-UNWASHED|
|3. SCR 18- UNWASHED|
|4. SCR 13 -WASHED|
|5. SCR 14 -WASHED|
|6. SCR 16 -WASHED|
|7. SCR 18-WASHED|