COMMON VARIETIES OF COFFEE IN VIETNAM
Vietnam is the country of the world-famous delicious coffees. Vietnamese coffee is very diverse in types. Each coffee variety brings a different coffee flavor to meet the taste of each person’s favorite.
In Vietnam, coffee is widely grown in the Central Highlands and some parts of the Northern Uplands.
Let’s explore some coffee varieties grown in Vietnam.
1. Arabica coffee
Strains of Arabica have slightly long grain. In Vietnam, Arabica coffee consists of 4 strains of Bourbon, Typica, Catuai and Catimor.
The difference of Arabica lies in the way it is processed. It is collected or Arabica coffee berries are fermented by soaking in water, then washed and dried. Arabica coffee has a sour, slightly bitter taste, when mixed with light brown, clear amber color. Ingredients of Arabica have little caffeine and lots of aroma. This is the main ingredient of the world’s most famous coffee companies.
Typica is the oldest coffee variety in the world. It was the first coffee strain to be discovered. Typica’s taste is very popular because of its sweet and bitter taste, mingled with the sour taste.
Typica has a height of about 3.5 – 4m, the main body erect, oblique are many secondary bodies. Currently, Typica is grown most in Cau Dat (Da Lat) with an output of about 3 tons of coffee beans / year. Due to the low productivity of Typica, since 2001, when the price of coffee in Vietnam was extremely low, people began to cut Typica and replace it with more productive coffee varieties.
Today, to get pure Typica coffee in Vietnam is quite difficult and extremely limited output.
Bourbon originated from a French island, was introduced to Vietnam in 1875. This coffee variety is grown at an altitude of 1000 – 2000m and has a yield of 20-30% higher than Typica, with the quality of coffee produced. is equivalent to Typica.
Bourbon coffee depends on each specific strain that ripens in different colors: yellow, orange, red, … This type of coffee contains a rich content of organic acids, has a sour taste, attractive aroma and Attractive flavor, sour taste makes many people fall in love. This is also considered the top delicious coffee varieties of Vietnam.
Catimor is a hybrid of Portugal, introduced in Vietnam since 1984. Catimor is a low-lying coffee variety with short burning branches and can be grown in dense, early mature trees. This coffee variety was bred to resist rust, a disease that causes deciduous coffee to result in low and unstable yield. In addition, Catimor has foliage covering the stem, limiting the destruction of stem borers. As a result, this is a high-yielding coffee variety, which is equal to or better than other commercial coffee varieties.
Catimor coffee has a passionate aroma and high price, but the quality of coffee is inferior to other pure Arabica varieties. Catimor currently accounts for most of Arabica coffee production in Vietnam, which is concentrated in Son La, Dien Bien and Lam Dong regions, …
Catuai is a hybrid coffee variety, introduced into Vietnam since the 1980s. This coffee variety has a dwarf stem, capable of withstanding the harsh conditions of nature. Catuai coffee berries are yellow or red when ripe, mainly rounded. Yellow berries have a stronger flavor than red berries.
2. Robusta coffee
Robusta is the best coffee variety of the Central Highlands region of Vietnam. The special thing about Robusta is that in each different land, Robusta brings different flavors. Robusta is grown at altitudes below 600m, suitable for many types of terrain should be widely planted, accounting for a quarter of the world’s coffee consumption.
Robusta coffee beans are smaller than Arabica, when they do not need to be fermented but dried directly, so the bitter taste of Robusta occupies mainly, making coffee lovers remember forever.
Robusta has 2 lines:
- Robusta Se
This is a purebred Robusta line, quality is stronger than the high yielding, small seeds but firm and heavy texture.
- High Production Robusta
High-yielding Robusta line has a large yield and high productivity, good pest and disease resistance but is not as good as the pure Robusta line, used to extract chlorogenic acid or make instant coffee.
3. Cherry coffee
Cherry coffee, also known as jackfruit coffee, consists of two main varieties: Liberica and Exelsa.
Cherry coffee has a high stalk, good resistance to pests and diseases, so it is preferred to use as a rootstock with other coffee varieties. Jackfruit coffee beans have large, elongated nodules, but not large yields. To create different flavors, when roasting people use jackfruit coffee beans mixed with other types of coffee such as Robusta coffee, tea coffee.
Each type of coffee creates an unforgettable impression for those who love the drink made from this seed.
Situation of Vietnam’s coffee industry 2019
In January 2019, coffee exports to many markets increased positively compared to the previous month, except exports to Germany decreased. The amount of coffee exported to Italy increased by 123.1%, Spain by 44.1%, Russia by 61.2%, Japan by 80.8%, Belgium by 44.8%, the Philippines by 40.7% , England increased by 69% and Algeria increased by 49.5%.
Despite the decrease, but Germany is still the largest coffee export market with an output of 25,918 tons, worth US $ 43.6 million, down 1.1% in volume, but up 0.5% in value compared to the month. December 2018, down 8.9% in volume and down 15.8% in value compared to January 2018.
The Ministry of Industry and Trade said that Vietnam’s coffee exports to Belgium had a strong growth in volume and ranked the second largest supplier, after Brazil. Notably, the growth rate of Vietnam’s coffee products in Belgium increased the most by 45% in volume, while Brazil grew by 0.9% only. This shows that Vietnam’s coffee products are increasingly popular in Belgium.
In 2019, if Vietnam’s coffee industry maintains double-digit growth, it is likely that Vietnam will surpass Brazil, becoming the largest coffee supplier for Belgium.