APPENDICES OF AFI STANDARD: Sampling Plan for Cashews, Test for Roasted Kernels
I. APPENDIX I : Sampling Plan for Cashews
N is the lot size
n is the number of cartons sampled (subsamples)
|B||51 – 350||6|
|C||351 – 800||13|
|D||801 – 2100||21|
*An acceptable sampling is either n or 2n
Collect a minimum of 500g for each subsample. Samples should be collected randomly without prejudice from 3 or more sites in the package. For bulk boxes, Gaylords and totes, used plan B.
1.AFI Methods for Determining Infestation, Serious Damage, Grade and Moisture
AFI ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR INSECT INFESTATION AND SERIOUS DAMAGE
Determine presence of live or dead insects by sieving entire contents of each sample carton over a No. 4 mesh sieve. Determine internal or external insect damage by random sampling and macroscopic analysis. Calculate percent of serious damage by count for grades of whole kernels and by weight for broken grades. For macroscopic analysis, the minimum test sample sizes are:
By composite sample: Examine a minimum of 250 whole kernels or 250g of broken grade. If the number of insect damaged kernels is greater than 0.5%, examine a second portion of 250 whole nuts or 250g of broken grade. By subsample: Examine a minimum of 100 whole kernels or 100g of broken grade kernels per subsample.
AFI ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR GRADE
Assuming that the samples collected from the lot are reasonably similar in appearance, a well mixed composite sample (raw or roast) may be examined for grade.
Determine breakage and defects in a 500g composite sample. Calculate percentages by weight.
Determine percentage of smaller and larger grade whole cashews in a 500g composite sample. Calculate percentages by weight. Determine the count in a one-pound (454g) composite sample of whole kernels.
Determine the size range of pieces with specified and calibrated wire mesh sieves. Sieve a 250g composite sample for 2 minutes using a mechanical sieve shaker. Calculate percentages by weight.
Determine defects after roasting a 500g composite sample. Calculate percentages by weight.
Off-flavor aroma and confirmation of rancidity is determined by a sensory panel. An off-flavor aroma is any atypical flavor- aroma including those caused by rancidity, decomposition, fermentation, microbial activity, infestation or chemical taint.
Color analysis of samples must be done under full spectrum lighting with a Color Rendering Index (CRI) of not less than CRI 91.
2.Sensory Test for Raw Kernels
A taste test should be done on the composite sample to test for the presence of Chlorophenol /flavor contamination (distinctive antiseptic taste). In the event it is found, the seller has the option of replacing the lot within 30 days.
3.Sensory Test Procedure:
A. Have a taste panel of two persons.
B. From the composite sample take 40 kernels.
C. If more than 2 kernels are found to have chorophenol flavor contamination, take another 60 kernels.
D. If more than 5 kernels in the second sample are found to have chlorophenol flavor contamination, the lot is deemed to be contaminated.
II. APPENDIX II: Test for Roasted Kernels
Almost all cashew kernels are sold to the consumer in the US after roasting. The appearance of the roasted kernel is critical for consumer acceptance. An uneven roast is never appealing to the consumer.
It is therefore recommended that shippers roast cashew samples prior to packing to determine the appearance that a lot will have after roasting. This is simply good manufacturing practices.
The roast test also confirms the proper classification of a lot, as to whether it should be sold as first, second, or third quality.
Roasting Procedure: The kernels should be roasted in a clear vegetable oil, e.g. peanut oil, which should be replaced as soon as it starts to deteriorate (when free fatty acids exceed 1%). The oil is brought to a temperature of 300 – 310F (149C) and is kept on the heat source while cashews are immersed in the hot oil for a period of 3 minutes. Any lowering of the temperature of the oil by the immersion of the cashews will not require any lengthening of the 3-minute roasting period. Adjustments in time and temperature are recommended when roasting butts, splits, and small kernels.
Spotting after Roast – brown spots that appear on the surface of the kernel after roasting, but which are not visible in the raw.
Scorched tip – a tip that is significantly darker than the remainder of the kernel due to a scorching during shelling or blanching.
Color Variation – any discoloration, other than a scorch mark, which detracts from the uniform appearance of the kernel.
Dark roast – a light to medium brown color in some kernels that detracts from the uniform appearance of kernels that are significantly lighter.
Deep roast – a deep brown color in some kernels that detracts from the uniform appearance of kernels that are significantly lighter.
Scrapes – knife scratches greater than 5mm in diameter that show up as light spots on the surface of the kernel.
Uneven roast – a roast with more than 7% total of the following defects: spotted, scorched tips/color variations, deeply scorched tips, dark roast, and deep roast. A roast is also uneven if more than 10% of the kernels show scrapes after roasting or the combination of roast defects and scraped kernels is greater than 15%.
Maximum Tolerances for Defects in First and Second Quality Roasted Cashew Kernels
|First Quality1.||Second Quality2.|
|Deeply Scorched Tips||1.00%||2.50%|
|Dark Roast||5.00%||No Limit|
1.The Total Defect Level for First Quality cannot exceed 7% for defects other than scrapes.
2.On Second Quality there are only limits for spotted, deeply scorched tips and deep roast. No total defect level is necessary for second quality.
Suggested Remedies for Non-Conforming Product
The following are suggested remedies for product found not to meet the AFI standard:
Infestation – If infestation is found in two or more cartons, the entire shipment should be frozen.
Severe Blocking – If severe blocking exists in two or more cartons, the entire shipment should be frozen.
Table 1. Tolerances for Defects and Damage in Raw Cashew Kernels
The following tolerances establish the maximum limits for damage and defects in raw cashew kernels. To determine compliance with these tolerances, one should follow the Sampling Plan found in Appendix I, and use established analytical procedures. Tolerances for a lower grade include the kernels defined by the lower grade but not the defects that are specific to the lower grade. Percentages are determined by weight.
|First Quality||Second Quality Scorched||Third Quality Special Scorched||Dessert|
|Mold rancidity, decay, adhering matter||0.5%||1.0%||1.0%||1.0%|
|Foreign Matter 1.||0.01%||0.01%||0.01%||0.01%|
|Maximum Serious Damage||1.0%||2.0%||2.0%||2.0%|
|Second Quality Scorched||5.0%||B||B||B|
|Third Quality Special Scorched/||1.5%||5.0%||B||B|
|Lightly Blemished Pieces||1.5%||5.0%||(*20% Light Brown Speckled)|
|Lightly Blemished Wholes||1.5%||5.0%||(*40% Light Brown Speckled)|
|Blemished Wholes||0.5%||2.5%||(*60% Brown Speckled)|
|Superficial Damage (scrapes)||1.0%||2.0%||5.0%||B|
|Adhering Testa/Seriously Damaged3.||3.0%/1.5%||3.0%/1.5%||3.0%/1.5%||3.0%/1.5%|
|Black Speckled Kernels||0.05%|
|Maximum Defect Level||8.0%||11.0%||14.0%||(*Maximum speckled for LBW and BW)|
1.The tolerance for foreign matter is in addition to the tolerance for maximum serious damage.
2.Dessert quality is the lowest grade but the defects cannot be so severe that the product is not merchantable. A delivery is acceptable provided it is equal or better than the approved pre-shipment sample. Two sealed pre-shipment samples are to be sent to the buyer for approval, one of which shall remain sealed for possible use in settling a dispute on quality at arbitration.
3.Maximum of 3% by weight for testa greater than 2mm in aggregate, but not more than 1.5% seriously damaged by adhering testa.
|Table 1. Tolerances for Defects and Damages in Small Pieces|
|Mold, rancidity, decay||0.5%||1.0%||1.0%|
|Foreign Matter 1.||0.01%||0.01%||0.01%|
|Maximum Serious Damage||1.0%||2.0%||2.0%|
|Second Quality Scorched/ Color Variation||5.0%||B||B|
|Third Quality Special Scorched/ Color Variation||2.0%||5.0%||B|
|Superficial Damage (scrapes)||B||B||B|
|Maximum Defect Level||10.0%||10.0%||12.0%|
1.The tolerance for foreign matter is in addition to the tolerance for maximum serious damage.
|Table 2. Cashew Pieces – Size Descriptions|
|Grade||Name||Passing through Sieve Number||Retained on Sieve Number|
|LWP, SP, SPS, LP, DP, P1, P2, P3||large pieces||Tyler No. 2.5 (USA No. 5/16) NMT 50%||Tyler No. 0.25 (USA No. 1/4) opening = 6.3 mm|
|SWP, SSP, DSP, SP1, SP2, SP3||small pieces||Tyler No. 0.25 (USA No. 1/4) opening = 6.3 mm||Tyler No. 7 (USA No. 7) opening = 2.80 mm|
|CHIPS, or SSP1, SSP2, SSP3||chips, or
special small pieces
|Tyler No. 7 (USA No. 7) opening = 2.80 mm||Tyler No. 8 (USA No. 8) opening = 2.36 mm|
|BB or G1, G2, G3||grains, granules, or baby bits||Tyler No. 8 (USA No. 8) opening = 2.36 mm||Tyler No. 10 (USA No. 12) opening = 1.70 mm|
|X||fine grains||Tyler No. 10 (USA No. 12) opening = 1.70 mm||Tyler No. 14 (USA No. 16) opening = 1.18 mm|
|FE||fines||Tyler No. 14 (USA No. 16)
opening = 1.18
|P1M, P2M, P3M||mixed pieces||Pass through 6.3 mm Sieve||Retained on a 4.75 mm Sieve|
B. For lower grade pieces – 0.5% with not more than 1.0% from the next lower grade size. Further, the grades SWP/SP1, SSP1/Chips, G1/BB and X must also be reasonably uniform in appearance, that is, with not more than 5.0% from the grade size above.
NB. The grade SSP as used above is a Brazilian grade designation for special small pieces, not to be confused with the Indian grade SSP, “small scorched pieces.
Last Revised July 28, 2016
SEE MORE: AFI STANDARD